Best Practices Module 10

Developing Criteria for Best Practices

Introduction

My goal is to continue to teach at the elementary school level. In this day and age of technology, there are more tools that I will ever be able to use. However, that will not stop me from using “best practices” to create an environment that is conducive to student learning and the 21st century. When I strive to be the best that I can, my students will follow my lead. As you read on, I hope you will find these “best practices” helpful.

Criterion 1: Establishing a clear and specific learning goal in an organized manner

One key criteria for best practices is establishing a clear vision for specific learning goals in a well thought out and organized manner. In other words, the readings, lectures, activities, tasks, etc. has to relate to the specific learning goals. For example, if the learning goal is to identify the endangered species in the rain forest and how humans can protect this species, then your readings … activities, etc. should relate. You would not include text about the planets and how the solar system works, again unless the information is related.

Justification of Criterion 1

Instruction has to flow and maintain organization where each task builds upon the previous one where students continue to construct and re-construct prior knowledge. Garrison (2011) stated that during the design phase instructors must do their best to provide reasonable structure (goals, expectations) and anticipate as best they can the evolving needs of the students. If the design or instruction is presented out of order or discombobulated the learning goal is muffled and ineffective.  Graphic organizers are helpful when organizing information. From my experience they have worked well in my traditional classroom settings. However, they help to provide a visual of facts in an organized manner. Lightle (2011) states that graphic organizers or flowcharts have proven to be effective tools to aid learning and thinking by helping students and teachers to represent abstract information in more concrete form, depict relationships among facts and concepts, relate new information to prior knowledge, and organize thoughts for collaboration and writing. While organizing and planning your content be aware of time constraints. There is nothing more frustrating than to plan too much or too little during the assigned time limits (trimester, semester, week).

Criterion 2: Resolving Technological Issues

As we all know, technology can be all good one minute and all bad the next. Not that we have a crystal ball and can determine when a site may be down, there is nothing more frustrating than when your technology does not perform as you planned. In this fast paced world of technology tools and systems can become outdated in no time. Even when we do a tester or a pilot run, things can still go wrong and ruin your presentation. So, with that being said teachers, have a paper copy of some sort if you meet face-to-face. If you are strictly online it may not be as simple. Let’s look at some of our challenges. In terms of meeting the needs of students/users, an appropriate technological infrastructure and standards must be adopted that are both cost effective and also ensure that key issues such as system security are addressed. Many of the virtual campus projects need to adopt open source technologies in providing suitable flexibility and functionality in a cost effective manner. (Stanfield 2009).

Justification of Criterion 2

Over our course, we experienced technical issues the first time with our guest speaker using Skype. Skype did not work well for us. The sound was muffled and we could not hear. However, the problem was resolved at a later date using a different tool that was very effective. To this point I have not experienced any issues using Blackboard. If the tool students are to use does not work, it makes it difficult to keep up. If students and teachers experience frustration, then the learning goals do not take place. It’s just like driving a car and that car acquires a flat tire. Well, the car will no longer get you from point a to point b so the tire is useless. The same scenario can be applied to technology. So, if your site goes down, have other web tools available to adjust instruction. The show must go on. One last thought, technology is a tool, not the content. Therefore, the use of technology should not be difficult and time consuming to figure out. Some students are more computer savvy than others and need not be penalized because of it. Keep the tools simple and adhere to the content.

Criterion 3: Effective Teaching 

As far as I can think back, effective teaching is the most important criterion for me. If your skills are unorthodox and the way you present to a group are unclear, then your lesson is ineffective and there is no purpose for the learning at all. For example, if I were to say write the mathematical formula for finding the hypotenuse of a right triangle and did not take you through direct instruction to teach you, then you will have a difficult time responding. Another example, my one year grandson is not walking yet, and I tell him to walk from the kitchen to the bedroom, that is not effective teaching. Now if I show him and help him along, that is more effective. There has been lots of attention given to what is effective and what is not. Some wanted to judge teachers based on the assessments of students. So, if your students scored high, you were effective, on the hand, you know the rest. Being a teacher myself, it seems that what worked at one time, may not work at another so teachers should not be penalized for poor performances but trained to be more effective. Therefore, “effective higher education teaching is a ‘contested concept’ with varying definitions. Numerous attempts have been made to identify these characteristics, using a variety of theoretical perspectives, from qualitative and quantitative approaches, from various disciplinary standpoints and from the student point of view, but there is no universally accepted definition of effective university teaching.” (Devlin & Samarawickrema (2010). Now what?

Justification for Criterion 3

From an higher education standpoint, what are effective teaching skills and practices? As defined by Devlin & Samarawickrema (2010), the criteria of effective teaching in higher education are understood to comprise particular skills and practices applied within particular contexts. However, as stated above, there is no universally accepted definition of effective teaching. Let’s look at some best practices I am familiar with. First, effective teachers bring relevance to the subject matter. Then they create a positive online or classroom climate. Remember, if it is not positive, students will not respond well. Devlin & Samarawickrema (2010) also suggests that teaching excellence … requires sound knowledge of one’s discipline and adds that excellent teachers are those who know how to motivate their students, how to convey concepts and how to help students overcome difficulties in their learning. Some effective strategies (Marzano 2011), is to design plans that demonstrate the relationship between learning theory, critical thinking, and performance skills. Other strategies include using a variety of approaches (art, hands-on, collaborations, presentation, etc.). Other factors include using appropriate assessments for the learning outcome. Some effective strategies may include bonding with the student, collaborating, meeting diverse needs, maintaining a positive and upbeat environment, committing to the goal, and providing feedback. Effective teachers provide rubric and grading systems so that students are clear as to what is expected for a positive outcome. This is why effective teaching could very well be the foundation of effective learning. Effective teachers know how to differentiate instruction, if necessary, correlate tasks and activities that are related to the subject matter, engage students in meaningful conversations (no matter the tool), use a cognitive presence for critical thinking discourse and a social presence that invites a comfort level where students can express their ideas safely.

Criterion 4: Thrive for Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presence

Since students do not have a visual of their classmates in an online course, participants still need to establish a since of community and present themselves in a “real people” way. The forms of social presence include (Hanover Research Council 2009):

  • Affective – expressing emotion, feelings, and mood
  • Interactive – evidence of reading, understanding, and participating
  • Cohesive – group commitment and a sense of belong

Another example from the Sloan Consortium that was profiled in excellence in teaching online was presented to Bill Pelz, a Professor of Psychology, who shared his belief that there are three effective online pedagogies. The first is “let the students do most of the work,” Plez (2003). In other words students should be leading the discussions, helping others learn, analyze and respond to peers in a meaningful way. The second principle involves “interactivity.” Pelz stresses that students should not just interact, but be to interact in a variety of ways, like groups, with the text, a partner, teams, be able to inquire, and problem solve. Variety is the spice of life. Last but not least, Pelz’s last principle is for students to “strive for presence.” As we learned earlier this trimester, we are to strive for social, cognitive, and teaching presence. Social presence is where we all need to connect emotionally to create a trusting bond. Cognitive where students can construct meaning, re-construct meaning through discourse. Having a strong teacher presence is crucial in order to direct and guide instruction.

Justification for Criterion 4 

As mentioned above, when students do most of the work, they are actually learning, not just memorizing rote points that they forget after an assessment. If students take learning into their own hands and own it, they will be life long learners. Getting back to the “strive for presence,” each idea is just as important as the other. Connecting and building a strong foundation justifies this criterion. Without the emotional commitment, there is no feeling, no passion, and no excitement. This has to be, I think, this is the first component of an online course. This is where the “attention getter” comes into play and the “why are we learning this?” I have to say that Dr. Baek has made us socially connect. I feel that I knew many of you well before I actually met some of you face to face. The pictures that also helped us make an emotional connection. And now we have grown and created a bond. We have given each other high praise on a job well done, and have given suggestions on what could have been better. Creating a cognitive presence is what I strive for. If the level of learning does not involve critical thinking and problem solving, then I don’t feel challenged, and I feel the course was a waste of time. As long as the learning goals are met by specific assignments that are related, that cognitive presence will strive. Having a strong teacher presence is what guides the instruction. Everything is a learning process. Again, relating to our instructor, she tells us when we have done an excellent job and when we could have done better. Then she gives you an opportunity to do better. Now that is what I call a strong learning presence. A teaching presence includes some direct instruction and examples (thank you.) Giving feedback, posting assignments, advising us to be effective researchers and “cite evidence” is something will guide us to become better writers that can express and articulate our ideas with clarity.

Criterion 5: Assessments (Peer to Peer & Instructors)

As we all know, we have to assess in order to know that our learners our meeting the objectives and goals. As instructors, we need to know that our teaching is also effective, so we give assessments or surveys find or close these gaps. Assessments should be both formative and summative. It is not best practice to give one or two assessments at the end of the course and discover that the learners did not achieve the intended goal. The remedy, formal assessments, self-checks, checkpoints, and peer assessments along the way. Assessments provide accountability on both the students and the instructors in order to continuously improve and to better understand the content. Furthermore, Davis that “assessment may be defined as an activity that engages both students and teachers in judgments about the quality of student achievement or performance, and inferences about the learning that has taken place.”

Justification for Criterion 5

Peer assessments are a concept that has been growing in recent years. Therefore, the importance of learners who can reflect on their own learning and on the learning of peers through peer and self-assessments is receiving increased acceptance in educational settings (Davis, et. al. 2007). When students are involved in collaborating and voicing a set of criteria or rubrics (developed by the instructor) they can assess each other as well as reflect upon their learning. As I ventured on my journey in ETEC 501, we commented on our peers work, made suggestions, and learned more information together beyond our realm as if we just wrote a paper and turned it in to Dr. Baek alone. Look at all of the scholarly information that was acquired from each other. Using the constructive model where we construct and reconstruct our knowledge, peer assessments make good practice as mentioned above, to hold everyone accountable and responsible for peer learning. As I instruct my students and the various levels in my classroom, if you “get it” then teach your partner or your group. This is a process, however, that we have to teach at an early age to develop peer contributions and take responsibility for our own learning. To be clear, I am not going forward or implying that peers are to actually grade their peers. I still believe that ultimately grades are that of the teachers’ expertise. But, I am saying that peer assessments help to engage students and since we are online everyone has a voice that is appreciated and valued. To conclude, “self-assessments were also required, and learners took into consideration the comments and suggestions received from their peers and from the instructor. In the self-assessment, the learner had an opportunity to defend his or her writing and to reflect on the suggested improvements” (Davis, et. al. 2007). I have to admit that my peers allowed me to perform better when I was lacking. With that being said, I was able to reevaluate my performance and increase its quality of my work. Our instructor also gave us opportunities to reassess our final products to create high quality work as well.

Conclusion: There are many “best practices” that one can elaborate on. As we continue our journey to be the best that we can be, continue to reflect upon your “best practices.”

References: Davis, N. T., Kumtepe, E. G., & Aydeniz, M. (2007). Fostering Continuous Improvement and Learning Through Peer Assessment: Part of an Integral Model of Assessment. Educational Assessment, 12(2), 113-135.

Garrison, D. Randy (2011). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice. New York: Routlege.

Hanover Research Council (2009). Lightle, Kimberly, Ph.D. (2011). The Ohio State University Collegof Education and Human Ecology.

Marzano, R. Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2011). Classroom Instruction That Works Publisher: Pearson Education.

Stanfield, Mark (2009). Electronic Journal of e-Learning (7)(2), 155–164.

Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.  Best Quote: “Let the students do most of the work,” Plez (2003). In other words students should be leading the discussions, helping others learn, analyze and respond to peers in a meaningful way. This speaks out to me. Since then I have been letting students take more control of their learning. When we teach them and not limit our students the outcome exceeds our original expectations.

Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present. Lorraine: Felder and Brent (1996) point out that learner-centered teaching provides “increased motivation to learn, greater retention of knowledge, deeper understanding, and more positive attitudes toward the subject being taught.” Explanation: This quotes relates back to my position in that students should be in control of their learning. When they are they own it and really learn the content.

Victor: The importance of success and process measures (i.e., best practices, benchmarks) is a critical component to the future of eLearning (Ash, 2011). The author’s focus is upon three global standards to assess scalability. It includes 1) the ability of e-learning platforms to easily adapt to increased demands; 2) the degree to which e-learning facilitates and responds to organization change; 3) creating an organization culture. Explanation: Sometimes as educators we don’t think (I don’t think) about the other sectors where technology is just as important as in education. Victor did a great job in expressing the business side of technology. When it all boils down, how much technology costs in any sector is a major factor, relating back to “supply and demand” (Economics 101).

What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something? 

I learned from all of my peers this quarter. It has been the best. My peers are well informed, they put a lot of effort into their work and it shows. I like the fact that each of us has something to share without reading from a boring textbook.  I also learned that “best practices” is a broad topic, however, when we justified the topic, we narrowed it down and made it more specific. I appreciate our guest speaker an all of the professional forums he lead us to. The segment about copyright, accessibility, and learning objects opened my eyes as well. This was great learning experience.

E-Learning Careers Module 9

E-Learning Careers – Module 9

Dream Job This week our class learned about e-Learning careers, requirements, and the road to our dream jobs. Let’s take a look! Assume that you are looking for an e-learning position. Using the assigned readings as a starting point, conduct Internet searches to look for any professional organizations related to e-learning, online learning, or blended learning. Choose one professional organization that houses e-learning related events/publications (such as the Sloan Consortium and Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education) and answer the following prompts. 

List the professional organization’s name and web address.

  1. Sloan Consortium – Online Learning Consortium (OLC)
  2. Web address – http://onlinelearningconsortium.org

Introduce conferences & publications related to e-learning, which are sponsored by or associated with this organization, if any.

Conferences:

  1. International Conferences – October 14-16, 2015 in Orlando, Florida
  2. Emerging Technologies for online learning – April 22-24, 2015 in Dallas, Texas
  3. Blended Learning – July 7-8, 2015 in Denver, Colorado

Journals:

  1. There are many journals available for download for members.

 Training:

  1. OLC offers workshops to empower educators with online learning programs throughout the year.
  2. OLC offers an online teaching certificate program giving students an opportunity to collaborate with peers around the globe and to work with experts in the field.
  3. Webinars are also part of training covering best practices and special interests.

Miscellaneous and Membership:

  1. The site offers everyone to collaborate and express their ideas via blogging and other social media Web tools.
  2. Interested parties can join the community for free
  3. Professional Membership $120
  4. Institutional Members $1495 for up to 30 faculty members
  5. Career for self-motivated individuals

Another Professional Organization – Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT); http://www.aect.org The Association has become a major organization for those actively involved in the designing of instruction and a systematic approach to learning.

  1. AECT, a professional association that helps improve instruction through technology
  2. Offers memberships and discounts to conferences
  3. Offers a job center and publications

 Conferences and Events:

  1. International Educational Technology Conference – May 27-29, 2015
  2. Accelerated Learning – November 3-7, 2015 in Indianapolis
  3. PacifiCorp Competition
  4. Bridging the gap between research and practice

Publications:

  1. Publications, journals, and books are offered

Note: Our guest speaker informed us about this organization as well. Find one job opening related to e-learning that interests you, either from the organization you chose or any other organization’s website. Describe the position.

  • Position Title: Digital Learning Project Specialist
  • Employer: San Bernardino County of Superintendent of Schools

Review the minimum qualifications (competencies and skill sets) required for the job you listed above. Discuss the three competencies or skills you think are most important to successfully perform this job. Your claims must be supported by literature (at least 3 articles, you may utilize the readings for this module). 

Requirements:

  1. Must be an outstanding presenter that instructs teachers and/or administrators how to integrate technology in the classroom using Common Core standards
  2. Extensive background and practice in integrating technology into the curriculum for learning and teaching
  3. The ability to increase critical thinking skills online
  4. Requires a Masters degree (preferably in instructional technology); however, B.A.’s are acceptable with 4 years of training.
  5. Other qualifications include experience in delivering professional development
  6. Design and conduct trainings
  7. Collaborate with subject matter experts and team member to develop content knowledge
  8. Write effective curriculum meeting high standards
  9. Maintain productive relationship with project stakeholders
  10. Instructor to the trainer so they may main
  11. Develop pilot courses

San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools (SBCSS) states that one of the most important requirements is the ability to deliver best practices to others so they feel confident about their skills in order to teach their class. In addition, qualifications need extensive background in integrating technology in the curriculum, for learning and teaching. “Using appropriate web tools are also critical at each grade level states a presenter at SBCSS.” Candidates need to be able to increase problem solving skills and design instruction that is engaging and practical. Must be able to monitor and encourage online contributions and keep track of their contributions and discussion responses. (Garrison 2011).

In addition to the above, a similar job (Curriculum Development Specialist) is responsible for the design and creation of facilitator lead and e-learning training for Global Operations. Their audience is Media Services, Product Services, and other shared services under the Global Operations Director. The candidate will be involved in all developmental training models and analysis. “Within the scope of these specialists, they also need to provide a sustainable, scalable approach to changing academic practices” (Newland and Byles).  

References: AECT: http://www.aect.org/newsite Digital Learning Services: http://www.sbcss.k12.ca.us/index.php/digital-learning-services 

Garrison, D. Randy (2011). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice. New York: Routlege.

Learning Edge Certification: http://www.sbcss.k12.ca.us

Newland, Barbara & Byles, Linda, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(3), 315-325.

Online Learning Consortium: http://onlinelearningconsortium.org 

San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools: http://www.sbcss.k12.ca.us

Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production:

  1. Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post no later than Wednesday in the discussion? Yes.
  2. Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic between Monday and Friday? Yes.
  3. Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answers to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday? Yes.
  4. Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.
  • My best quote was to John and Lorraine because I when I read their posts, I knew what min was missing. So, I took your advice and went back and revised my work. So, this blog is my final. I now have the references you asked for, and hope that I improved in this module.

Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present.

  • The best contribution this week is from Lorraine. As I went back and read other posts, her post was exactly what you asked for. It was well written and her references coincided with the qualifications.
  • Another well written by John was excellent. He too followed the directions. His was a model post and I wish I had read his among the first.

What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something?

I learned that it is extremely difficult to gain experience in becoming a Digital Learning Project Specialist or Curriculum Development Specialist using e-Learning. However, the rewards are plentiful. You just have to learn your craft and take one step at a time. Note: However, after learning from other students’ work and following Dr. Baek’s advice to us, I did go back and revamp my work. This blog is my final product. It is never too late to follow good advice.

Copyright Issues, Accessibility, and Learning Objects Module 8

Summary of topics: Accessibility, Copyright, and Learning Objects

 Copyright Issues

In summary, copyright laws are extremely complex. But, exactly what is the definition of copyright? Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. As I continued with my readings, many works are copyrighted. To me, this seems like hard to do. There are so many works, works that are similar, works that may sound the same. How does one really determine what is someone else’s and what is not. For example, Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams are on trial for a song entitled “Blurred Lines.” The song is said to have copies Marvin Gaye’s music. Pharrell states that he did not copy his music but has been a fan and grew up to his music. So could it be that subconsciously, the song has some of the same features as Marvin Gaye’s song? Therefore, how does one really decipher whether or not the song was copied. Keep in mind, there are only so many beats (that is an assumption) I know nothing about notes and reading music. I have listened to the both songs and again, the line is very thin.

However, for educators there is “Copyright for Educators” and its Fair Use. Fair Use is the concept that if you are doing something for the greater good of society, like teaching, then your needs supersede the ownership rights of the copyright holder under the Copyright Act. Teachers, and by association, students, can legally use music, websites, video, print, images, and the whole realm of copyrighted materials for the purposes of teaching. (PBS) The following is information and some basic rules and Fair Use for educators:

Copyright Scenario Checklist
Copyright Primer for Administrators
Copyright Guidelines for Teachers
Copyright Quiz
Copyright Quiz Answers

Copyright and fair-use issues will always have a gray area and is very confusing. I guess that is why there are Copyright Laws, because you may need an expert to explain the do’s and don’ts. When we use the Internet we are copying and pasting for our classrooms and for our own use. Again, as we teach content, we need to be aware of copyright issues and cite accordingly.

I think that is it important that we start implementing how to reference others work at an early age. We need to teach students not to copy and give them strategies for them to be able to write authentically.

Learning Objects

I learned that learning objects are a variety of tools. I can be a template that may be used over and over again regardless of the instructional content. One students described a learning object as a graphic organizer template for brainstorming called “Thinking Maps.” Another colleague described learning objects as “any digital resource that can be used and reused to support learning.”

Learning objects can be visuals like pictures, charts, graphs, audio and videos. These learning objects can be used to support the outcome of student learning. Learning objects can be used until students get the gist of what is taught. After that students can move on to new objectives that may involve critical thinking skills. The learning object can be computer driven as well where the student can practice multiple times until they have achieved their learning goals. I like the fact that students can repeat as many times as needed when computer driven or generated.

 Accessibility

 Being an educator, I personally know that within the public school system, education has to accessible to all students. This includes students in wheelchairs, hearing impaired, autism, emotionally disturbed, learning disabilities, etc. not to mention gifted students. The instructor has to make instruction easy to access for these students. We incorporate a portion of our day what we call at school site, “Universal Access” (UA). Within our UA designated time, students are grouped according to ability level ranging from low abilities to high achievers. Usually, a student has an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or a 504 Plan.

I have learned from other posts various websites that offer support to teachers to help with their instructional design. In addition, the websites posted have many examples that can help assist student learning. “Assistive technology (AT) is any device, piece of equipment or system that helps a person with a disability work around his challenges so he can learn, communicate or simply function better.” I am intrigued at what actually is available especially in technology. Now that I know, I can use.

Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production:

  1. Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.
  2. Did you fulfill the requirement to reply at least two classmates’ blogs on Saturday/Sunday? yes
  3. Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answers to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday? yes
  4. Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic between Monday and Friday? yes
  5. Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post no later than Wednesday in the discussion? yes
  • My best post would be my “Copyright Issues.” It was relevant because I could make a connection with one of favorite songs “Blurred Lines” composed by Pharrell Williams (he sings Happy), and one of my favorite vocalist Robin Thicke. So there were connections made.

Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present.

  • One of my best peers post is Lorraine’s post regarding accessibility. I really learned a lot from her post with the information she supplied. It was well written and very informative.
  • Another post was from Laurie Hanna, regarding learning objects. I did not really know what learning objects were. Laurie did a great job of informing me and explaining how to support inquiry-based learning.

What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something?

I learned a lot this week. Thank you, Dr. Baek, all of the topic were relevant and satisfying to learn. Everything is useful in education.

References:

American Library Association. (2015). Copyright. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/advocacy/copyright

PSB SoCal. (n.d.). Copyright for educators. Retrieved from http://www.pbssocal.org/education/teachers/copyright

United States Copyright Office. (2012). Copyright basics. Retrieved from http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ01.pdf

Using Web 2.0 Tools – Module 6

Share the name of the Web 2.0 tool you selected.

The Web 2.0 tool I selected to use is PhotoPeach.com.  I selected this tool because I found it to be kid-friendly. The key features key features are the ability to create slideshows by uploading photos as well as adding a variety of pre-programmed music.

Share your small course material development.

http://photopeach.com/album/5iio6g

Describe features of the Web 2.0 tool you chose and how it can be incorporated into an e-learning course you developed.

  • You can easily create multiple student accounts without email addresses.
  • Web 2.0 tool is easy to organize project with tags and publish pages to share with parents and the community.
  • Student work will not appear as published until you are ready.
  • You can download digital videos
  • Upload your own music files to customize your slideshows
  • Create unlimited photo albums
  • Customize the effects during transition of slides
  • Most of the slides are free, you can upgrade if you like

Briefly describe how you developed your product.

  • First, I introduced the topic. “Drought in California.”
  • Next, I designed the tasks as follows:
  1. Students are invited to a meeting to discuss the drought. You will be introduced to a farmer, a firefighter, and construction worker.
  2. As they tell you about the effect the California drought has had on the their profession and the community, you will be responsible to come up with a slideshow including captions that describe the drought.
  3. Next you present efforts to reserve water.
  4. Post slides of how the drought is affecting humans, animals, and plants.
  5. Post slides of how we can help reserve water.

Do you think your product is well developed with clear objectives? Why or why not?

  • I do feel that the product was well developed. The slides share a visual story about the “California Drought.”

Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production

  1. Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post no later than Wednesday in the discussion? Yes.
  2. Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic between Monday and Friday? Yes.
  3. Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answers to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday? Yes.
  4. Did you fulfill the requirement to reply at least three classmates’ blogs on Saturday/Sunday? Yes.
  5. Your websites are very interesting. When I looked up Poll Everywhere, it was nice to use it and know that it was in real time. Students can use virtually any electronic device.  Since most students have some sort of device it makes it easy for anyone that wants to use it can. Kahoot was exciting to use, especially when everyone can compete against each other. Great sites. Charles
  6. Melissa’s post was good as well. I liked her post because she used the Podcast to create exercises to follow as well as a meal plan. This is great to have peer support to help with a healthy lifestyle.

I learned a lot this week. I learned that there are many Web 2.0 tools to use that make the engagement level rise. I am proud of myself in my design process.

Cyberspace – Module 5

 cyberspace

Instructional Strategies for Cyberspace

Review of the Guest Speaker session

The guest speaker was Mr. Edgar Chabolla, an Instructional Designer at California State University, San Bernardino, and the Department of Academic Technologies and Innovation and Accessibility Consultant. The session was informative in which he covered issues involving technology in higher education. He also provided information from the Horizon Reports that also informed us as to direction instructional technology is headed in higher education.

Key Points and the Process Involved

E-Learning Trends are identified as gamification, freelance-eLearning, Massive Open Online Course, School as a Service, and others. We need to look at our roles as an Instructional Designer, which is a very structured approached.

Horizon Report – In 2014, some of the key trends include an expansion of hybrid and online learning over the next five years. Panels, consisting of 850 experts look at the trends and are able to provide us with what they expect to happen in our immediate future. Those trends include:

  1. One to two years:
  • Expanded use of social medial
  • Hybrid learning
  1. Three to five years:
  • Analytics (active learning)
  • More student-centered roles where students have more control
  1. Five years plus:
  • Changes in higher education processes and how universities adopt
  • Evolution of online learning maybe decreasing f2f traditional courses
  • Universities will need to adapt to community changes regarding online delivery and learning.

Challenges

Attainable challenges include:

  • Low digital fluency faculty
  • Lack of rewards for teaching online

 Difficult challenges include:

  • Competition from for profit institutions
  • Scaling
  • Ownership of the course

 Impossible challenges include:

  • Expanding access – online courses, incorporating thousands of students regardless of time and space – how will we change our infrastructure?
  • Keeping education relevant – creating quality learning

New Trends and Development

Current trends within the next 1 to 2 years involve flipped classrooms where students will engage at home and when they come to the class they will be ready to discuss. Where as analytics has to do with tracking learning, management systems, and how to interact with content online. Within 2 to 4 years gamification and 3D printing will evolve. We (teachers) have to learn first and evolve from there. Faculty has to be guided in the learning process. Within 4 to 5 years virtual assistants will be prevalent, Google class (very exciting) and voice recognition.

Questions & Answers

  • Can you define gamification as it pertains to education and give an example of it being used in a course?
  • True or real life assessments where you can get information and create a self-instruction tool to apply what you just learned in real life applications. Michael referred to gamification in his flipped classroom and says that students are more motivated. Some of the rewards are badges, stars, etc. as part of the reward system as Michael mentioned that is used in his classroom.

Have these strategies been proven that in using them students will become better critical thinkers?

  • Yes. Students have to be more accountable for their thoughts and actions therefore this pushes students to think critically. The responsibility is now the students and whatever you say is public, there is no hiding so to speak. Participation is forced which is a good thing.

How would you best incorporate the Community of Inquiry (Col) concept of knowledge formation into an e-learning environment?

  • We created the space for students to think critically and create personal connections. If it is not graded students feel they can express their ideas in a non-threatening way while practicing technology usage.

How can the new technologies help students believe in themself more? That is my biggest obstacle and I hope technology helps them direct their education. Eventually I cannot do it for them.

  • It is the role of the instructor to help students believe in themselves. When students do not participate the instructor should touch base as to why the student did not participate, then maybe ask if the student is clear or needs any help. Like Dr. Baek, our discussions are summarized at the conclusion of each module.

What is the most recognized eLearning conference or journal for California community college level online learning?

  • AECT – Association for Educational Communications and Technology
    • Tell about where the industry is going, directed toward improving instruction through technology.
  •  DET/CHE – Directors of Educational Technology
    • The network created among Directors of Educational Technology is an invaluable resource for sharing ideas and advancing the fields of instructional technology, multimedia, online learning, and other forms of education that apply leading-edge technologies and pedagogies.
  • The Online Learning Consortium
    • The Online Learning Consortium is the leading professional organization devoted to advancing quality online learning providing professional development, instruction, best practice publications and guidance to educators, online learning professionals and organizations around the world.
  • EDUCAUSE
    • EDUCAUSE is a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education through the use of information technology.

Do you have any experience with or opinion of open source learning platforms such as Moodle of Sakai as opposed to proprietary platforms such as Blackboard? What about cloud-based?

  • The advantages of online discussion is that students are able to work at various times and space. The purpose of online instruction is flexibility. If instruction is well designed, students can be successful. What you do f2f, students can also perform these tasks online. In most cases, the cost of online classes is less costly than f2f. In large corporations, being less sociable and just getting the job done is cost efficient as well. The fact that students can learn at anytime, (within the deadlines) are beneficial. If I want to read at 1:00 a.m., I can do so. E-Learning fosters more interaction in a non-threatening environment and accommodates different learning styles.

Advantages and Constraints of Synchronous Online Discussion

  • The advantages of online discussion is that students are able to work at various times and space. The purpose of online instruction is flexibility. If instruction is well designed, students can be successful. What you do f2f, students can also perform these tasks online. In most cases, the cost of online classes is less costly than f2f. In large corporations, being less sociable and just getting the job done is cost efficient as well. The fact that students can learn at anytime, (within the deadlines) are beneficial. If I want to read at 1:00 a.m., I can do so. E-Learning fosters more interaction in a non-threatening environment and accommodates different learning styles.
  • Some of the disadvantages could be the emotional connection with students and the instructor. The immediacy of Blackboard is missing while in f2f questions can be answered immediately. The traditional type conversation is also at a disadvantage. Instructors may not always be available in when a student needs help. Hands on activities would be at a disadvantage.

Mr. Chabolla pointed out the differences between Instructional Designer and Instructional Technology.

  • Instructional Designer works closely with the professor in designing curriculum for hybrid and online learning.
  • Instructional Technology are the tools used to achieve our goals of instruction like blackboard or any other software that can be implemented in the class.

Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production:

  1. Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post no later than Wednesday in the discussion? Yes.
  2. Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic between Monday and Friday? Yes.
  3. Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answers to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday? Yes.
  4. Did you fulfill the requirement to reply at least three classmates’ blogs on Saturday/Sunday? Yes.
  5. Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.
  • My best post from the week is from Charles “I specifically remember a course where I found myself highly motivated to complete and pass at my greatest potential during my undergraduate career at CSU, San Bernardino. This particular professor not only kept me on my toes (or perhaps my heels), but engaged me into the subject so much with relevant questions and by focusing on different students each class. The instructor created a safe environment for us to talk about our personal experiences and how they related to the subject (Psychology of Perception). I also found that his activities were challenging but fun and provided some level of satisfaction and always wanting more.” The fact that a true learner always wants more to learn is my type of learner. I feel the same way. Thanks, Charles.

6. Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present.

  •  I have noticed that the closer I get toward graduation, the more my classes interest me. I am currently enrolled in a Cyber Security course and I have to say that is the most interesting class thus far. The reason why it interests me is because it motivates me to want to work hard. Everything I have learned so far is something that will benefit me in the near future and help me get a job. Another thing that really motivates be about this class is that upon passing the final exam, we get certified as IT security professionals. This certificate alone will qualify for us for many attractive careers in the IT field. Fernando. I like this quote because of Fernando’s motivation to work hard to achieve a goal.

What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something?

  • I actually learned quite a bit with our guest speaker. He was informative and the tool that we used this time was good. I believe that we are headed in the right direction and that the way we teach and learn will become more engaging and meaningful. I truly believe in the critical thinking process.

E-Learning Col Framework Module 4

Assume you are an e-learning instructor. How can you apply the CoI Framework when you design and deliver/teach your course? Be specific.

  • Col Framework
  • Course Title: Foundations of instructional technology
  • Content/Topics: Instructional design models
  • Target Audience: Master’s students
  • Delivery Format: Online
  • Technology Tools: Blackboard, Padlet.com, Facebook, Twitter

 Course Design

  • Social Presence – Students need to feel connected. You can achieve this by welcoming students by email as an introduction to the course along with the syllabus. Uploading a photo may help build a personal atmosphere. The goal is to create a social and emotional community. Social presence consists of open communication, a sense of humor, asking questions, and addressing students by name.
  • Cognitive Presence – Students can pose some comments as they construct and reconstruct knowledge. Students can use open-ended scenarios that will lead to further discussion and critical thinking. Students supply information, apply it and defend it. This approach helps students to become better learners.
  • Teaching Presence – The instructor facilitates the direction in which the course is going. Providing essential questions that guide the students to think deeper is critical. The expectations should be clear, maybe should be supported by a rubric or grading scale. The teacher has to set up information on how to blog and how to use the Blackboard. The instructor can also remind students of deadlines. Assigned readings and a “To Do” section will be provided so students have easy access on how to keep up with the readings and other assignments.

 Combination of Social, Cognitive, and Teaching

  • Students could use Facebook, twitter, or any other social media to communicate. Google docs and padlet.com may also be available as an alternative method to Blackboard so students can connect in another way. The instructor can create a survey to ask students what some of their preferences and interests are to further engage students.

 Course Delivery

  • Social Presence – The course is delivered via Blackboard. Students will introduce themselves. The instructor will introduce herself with a brief bio of his/her background and accomplishments. This will help students to express themselves with their introductions using the discussion thread.
  • Cognitive Presence – Using cognitive presence the instructor can assign Blackboard and guide students through a critical thinking process by providing higher order questions. Here students can ponder and reflect on their ideas while learning from other students and reading their responses as well. Students can reflect on their peers input, information is exchanged.
  • Teaching Presence – The instructor will read students responses and provide feedback in a timely manner to keep student engaged and motivated. The instructor will grade student work.
  • Combination of Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presences – Students will be involved in essential questions for the week. Students would research and read the selection in order to construct and re-construct knowledge. Students may be required to write a research report on their findings. Next, students would read 2 student’s reports and post their comments. Instructors would give feedback, which creates a teacher and social presence.

Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production:

Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post in the discussion no later than Wednesday? Thursday

Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic between Monday and Friday? Yes

Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answer to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday? Yes.

Did you fulfill the requirement to reply at least three classmates’ blogs on Saturday and/or Sunday? Yes.

  • First of all I like it when I have to look up words that I don’t know – So I did. I love the definition – “In education, heutagogy, is a term coined by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon of Southern Cross University in Australia, and is also called self-determined learning. The basic tenet of the approach is that it is the learner who should be at the center of their own learning, and hence that ‘learning’ should not be seen as teacher-centric or curriculum-centric, but learner-centric.” Wikepedia.

Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.

  • The quote of the week for me was from Victor, which states, “The goal of cognitive presence is to sharpen the critical thinking skills of program participants. With adult learners, this can be achieved by individual participants resolve increasingly difficult problems that are meaningful to the learner. While not explicitly stated, heutagogy theorists would likely endorse intellectual curiosity as another dimension of cognitive presence for adult learners. Victor

Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present.

  • I like John’s quote – Each communication style is meant to allow for the learner to project themselves into the learning environment as their authentic selves and be accepted. John I agree. The learner “project themselves … and be accepted.” I like the fact that students should be accepted. I am teaching my students now that it is okay to disagree. The world has many gray areas and that we have to be respectful of other opinions.

What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something?

  • I learned that soon I would be able to design my own eLearning course. Yay! I am starting to see how Instructional Design and asynchronous and synchronous works. What motivates me is that as long as your design is engaging to other students that you can create an exciting social learning community. I also learned a new word – heutagogy.

References

Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. R., Archer, W. (2001). Assessing Teaching presence in a Computer Conference Environment.  Journal of asynchronous learning networks, 5(2), 1-17.

Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-Learning in the 21st century (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical Thinking, Cognitive Presence, and Computer Conferencing in Distance Education. American Journal of Distance Education.

Learning Theories – Module 3

Which learning theory do you think leads to students’ best learning? Why do you think that? I believe that all three learning theories can lead to student learning. It depends on what is being taught and how what is the best way for the instructional designer to teach it. My belief is that we learn at different rates, different times, and different levels. All three learning theories are relevant. I believe the theory used depends on what is being taught. For example, using the behaviorist theory by using rewards and punishment may, best learn shaping appropriate student behavior in the classroom. Common examples, student who gets a correct answer will receive a sticker. Students arriving late will get detention. On the other hand, when teaching long division the cognitive approach may work. Instruction is organized and presented in a logical way like chunking, using graphic organizers, and sequencing. Lastly, the constructive approach is used for PBL that promote critical thinking skills and problem solving. When students interact, students are engaged and take on meaningful experiences. Multiple perspectives, ethics, patterns, convergence, divergence, using paradox, etc. are higher- level concepts constructivists would use.

  1. Assume you are an e-learning instructor. Create an e-learning instruction/activity (fully online or hybrid), applying your theory in a ‘real’ online education setting. In the description of the activity, include the following information:
  • Course Title: English Language Arts
  • Content/Topics: Biographies (Black History)
  • Target Audience: 3rd grade students
  • Delivery Format: face to face, online
  • Technology Tools:
    • Internet – padlet.com
    • Video “I Have a Dream”
  • Activity: Students are introduced to Martin Luther King.
    • First we will read MLK trade books for background information (face-to-face) to check for understanding.
    • Next we will discuss an essential question online through padlet.com where students can respond to one another’s comments. For example, how would you feel if you best friend at school lived on opposite sides of the track and you were not allowed to play with him/her because of that? Thinking about MLK, what were his contributions? Is his work complete, or do you think there is much left to do? Explain.
  • Students will create a timeline (face-to-face) of interesting point to them; share.
  • Create MLK clouds that say: I Have a Dream (face-to-face).
  • Cloud 1: What dream do you have for yourself?
  • Cloud 2: What dream do you have for your community?
  • Cloud 3: What dream do you have for the world?
  • Then we would cut out the clouds and string them together; share.
  • Using all constructive approach, students collaborate and create meaning from each other through padlet.com. They are able to ask and answer questions. All students are able to participate. English Language Leaners do not feel threatened or pressured to answer quickly they can ponder the questions. They are able to construct and re-construct meaning.
  • I would also be part of the discussion to ask questions and continue to guide the discussion.
  1. Summarize this week’s discussions. Use this template to structure your production:
  2. Did you fulfill the requirement to make your first post no later than Wednesday in the discussion? yes
  3. Did you fulfill the requirement to post at least three times in each discussion topic any time Monday through Friday? yes
  4. Did you fulfill the requirement to post the answer to the prompts in your blog no later than Sunday (Jan 31)? yes
  5. Did you fulfill the requirement to reply at least three classmates’ blogs during Saturday and Sunday? yes
  6. Quote your best post(s) from the week and explain why you feel these are the best.
  • The best quote was “I have always believed that people learn best in a caring and stimulating environment. It’s long been my goal to provide such an environment in the Cerritos College library and in our online presence, whether it’s in the library, on our web pages, during a one-shot library research session, or in my Library Skills class. The college librarian’s role is that of guide, providing students with access to information sources and instructing them in their organization and use, but in the end inspiring them to become information seekers themselves and to find answers to questions that are of interest to them personally…” Constructivism takes learning into the real world. It incorporates social situations and real-life opportunities into the education process. It’s a very active method of teaching and learning in which the teacher serves as facilitator or coach to provide support for the student’s learning activities.” Lorraine – I feel that Lorraine clearly provides a clear understanding of the learning theories. I also like the way she connects to her current librarian position.
  1. Quote several of the best posts from other students. Explain why you chose the ones you present.
  • Personally, I feel as though most students would fall into the behaviorist model of learning. I feel this way because as a young student myself, I remember my mother and grandmother, the two most influential and actively involved people in my life, stressing the value of a good education. In addition, they wouldn’t settle for grades that were, “Below acceptability.” By combining the influence and the standard that was set, I learned how to be a “good” student. Based on my experiences as a teacher today, I find that this generation has and does view education very different than even my generation did. I know this to be true because many of my students have told me point blank, “I have already been held back once, and they cannot do it again.” This demonstrates a learned behavior, if they don’t want to, they won’t, and since no one has taught them otherwise, they don’t. 
  • For me, it is very hard to incorporate this learning theory into my design and teaching of an e-learning course. What I do, as a teacher, is build rapport with my students. My hope in doing so is that I can “re-teach” and instill in them a new outlook on their education. Thus, creating a new learned behavior, one that translates into a better view of their personal academic successes. Antonio

Antonio put a different spin on behaviorism. Teaching middle school students have learned that their behavior has not been positive, but he tries to reach the kids with building a relationship.

  1. What did you learn in the discussion this week that will be useful to you or that changes the way you view something?

I learned that in some respect, most of us feel that all three of the learning theories effect most of us and that we learn in an engaging atmosphere.